Unit 2 Space trek – By Syam R

(unit:2/part 1/ pg.no.20 )

  1. Where is the hubble telescope placed?

Launched on April 24, 1990, aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery, Hubble is currently located about 340 miles (547 km) above Earth’s surface, where it completes 15 orbits per day — approximately one every 95 minutes.

2. How do the astronomers communicate with the telescope?

Scientists communicate with Hubble by radio signals. Hubble, in turn, sends images and data it has gathered to Earth by radio signals. Data from Hubble are relayed to the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) that is in a geosynchronous orbit above Earth.

3. How is the Hubble able to operate without power from the sun?

Hubble is able to operate with six batteries that are constructed each of 22 nickel hydrogen (NiH2) cells. Together, all six batteries store an amount of power equal to about 20 car batteries. The batteries deliver 32 volts each (the equivalent of about 29 AA batteries) and are connected in parallel. With a rated capacity of 88 amp-hours for each battery, the fully charged system can store 528 amp-hours and contains enough energy to sustain the telescope in a normal science operation mode for 7.5 hours, or five orbits.

4. What are the conditions under which the Hubble has to operate?

Designers of the Hubble space telescope had to take into account the conditions in which it was to operate. Hubble would be subject to the rigours of zero gravity and temperature extremes, fluctuations of more than 100 degrees Fahrenheit during each trip around the earth. To accommodate this less than the hospitable operating environment, Hubble was given a ‘skin’ or blanket of multilayered insulation.

5. How is the telescope protected in these conditions?

Multilayered insulation protects the telescope from temperature extremes. During services mission 4 in 2009, astronauts also added panels of insulation called New Outer Blanket Layers (NOBLs) over portions of Hubble.

6. How are the optical system and science instruments protected?

Hubble’s optical system is held together by a truss measuring 210 inches and 115 inches in diameter. The 114 kg truss is made of graphite-epoxy which is a stiff, strong and lightweight material that resists expanding and contracting in extremes of temperature.


Support SystemFunctions/Job Description
WIDEFIELD CAMERA 3This is a cutaway diagram of the Hubble Space Telescope, with components labelled. The forward shell houses the telescope’s optical assembly. In the middle of the telescope are the reaction wheels and the bays that house the observatory’s control electronics. The aft shroud houses the scientific instruments, gyroscopes, and star trackers. The instruments are located in containers that make them easy to remove and replace.
COSMIC ORIGINS SPECTROGRAPHWide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) expanded Hubble’s reach by giving the telescope greater access to ultraviolet, visible and infrared wavelengths of light. With its high resolution and wide field of view, WFC3 has become the telescope’s workhorse camera, responsible for many of Hubble’s spectacular pictures. It has imaged everything from nearby star formations to galaxies in the very distant universe.
ADVANCED CAMERA FOR SURVEYSThe Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) breaks ultraviolet radiation into components that can be studied in detail. COS is best at studying points of light, like stars or quasars (distant galaxies emitting tremendous amounts of light from their central regions). It has been used to study
SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING SPECTROGRAPHThe Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) conducts surveys of the universe. It is responsible for many of Hubble’s most impressive visible-light images of deep space. With its wide field of view, sharp image quality, and high sensitivity, ACS helps map the distribution of dark matter, detects the most distant objects in the universe, searches for massive planets and studies the evolution of clusters of galaxies.

Verbal Ability

2. Provide the appropriate words

  • Telibanking/Phonebanking
  • Telecommunication
  • Teleconference
  • Telecommuting/telework
  • Phonetics
  • Photojournalism
  • Seismographs
  • Monograph

3. Double Consonant

A double consonant is a consonant letter occurring twice in succession in a word. For example, the ‘nn’ in the tunnel is a double consonant. Double consonants are frequently found in words that have a suffix added to them, for example ‘beginning’. To spot another example is ‘happy’ a double consonant

4. Fill in the blanks

  • Connect
  • Metallic
  • Parallel
  • Communicate
  • Symmetrical (made up of exactly similar parts facing each other or around an axis)
  • Antenna
  • Accessible
  • Installation
  • Current
  • Transmission



2. How is space research useful for agriculture?

Space research is useful in building small dams to capture rainwater and recharge underground reservoirs. This approach could help reclaim arid and semi-arid land for agricultural use. The infrared images taken by imaging satellites of ISRO will help to measure the reflectivity of plant-covered surfaces. This in turn will help to determine whether the crop fails or not. By this, the yield can be forecasted one month before the harvest. Remote sensing satellites provide key data for monitoring soil, snow cover, drought and crop development. Rainfall assessments from satellites, for example, help farmers plan the timing and amount of irrigation they will need for their crops.

3. What major problem of rural India could be solved by the use of satellite images?

The problem of unclean drinking water could be solved by the use of satellite images. Ensuring a supply of clean water is a problem in many parts of rural India. Topographic and hydrological maps produced from satellite images help rural communities locate areas most likely to yield underground water. The success rate for drilling wells gas has gone up from 45 to 90 per cent.

4. What is the role played by satellites in disaster management?

ISRO played a major role in early warning systems during disasters. Early information (even a few hours before a disaster) can save thousands of lives. In 1990, the advancement of remote sensing and communication satellites mitigated the adverse effect of deadly cyclones.

5. What is telemedicine and how it is useful to people?

telemedicine is the practice of medicine using technology to deliver care at a distance. A physician in one location uses a telecommunications infrastructure to deliver care to a patient at a distant site. ISRO’s telemedicine programme is an innovative process of introducing the telemedicine facility to the grassroots level population to deliver healthcare services to the remote, distant and under-served regions of the country. Some 70 plus hospitals of remote Andaman islands have already been linked with the hospitals of mainland India.

Verbal Ability

Identify the words

  • A small object orbiting a larger one – A Satellite
  • Another name for spacecraft – Rocket
  • Hurl or send forth rockets – Launch
  • Detailed description of a district – Taluka
  • A synonym of predicted – Forecasted
  • A period of ten years – Decade
  • A source of water supply – Reservoir

Chandrayaan-2 Pg 25 Grammar

  • When will be the next moon mission starting?
  • What will be the Chandrayaan 2 consisting of?
  • Will motoriesed rover be releasing over the moon’s surface?
  • How will be the rover running?
  • How often will be the battery recharging?

Using future tense, fill in the blanks

  • will detect
  • will unleash
  • will fold
  • will sail
  • will launch
  • will unfurl
  • will begin
  • will help
  • will

What do the following initialisms and acronyms stand for

ISROIndian Space Research Organisation
NASANational Aeronautics and Space Administration
ISSInternational Space Station
ASLVAugmented Satellite Launch Vehicle
GSLVGeosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle
PSLVPolar Satellite Launch Vehicle
ISMIn-Space Manufacturing
NTPCNational Thermal Power Corporation
ONGCOil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited
R&DResearch and development 

Write a note of appreciation ANUSAT team


The Anna University Satellite or ANUSAT was an Indian student research microsatellite designed, developed and integrated at Aerospace Engineering, Madras Institute of Technology (MIT), ChromepetAnna University. Students and faculty members of Madras Institute of Technology and College of Engineering, Guindy were involved in the design of ANUSAT. The project director of the ANUSAT was Dr. P. Dhanraj, CASR, Madras Institute of Technology, Chromepet.[2] It carries an amateur radio and technology demonstration experiments. It was successfully Integrated at the cleanroom facility at MIT, Chrompet, Chennai and launched aboard a PSLV-CA designated PSLV-C12, along with RISAT-2, from the Second Launch Pad at the Satish Dhawan Space Centre. The launch was carried out at 01:15 GMT (06:45 IST) on 20 April 2009.

The satellite’s development was sponsored by the Indian Space Research Organisation, which was also responsible for launch services.[3]

ANUSAT was a cube with 23-inch (580 mm) long sides, and a mass of 38 kilograms (84 lb).[4] It carried an amateur radio store and forward communications system, and also conducted technological research. This satellite was spin-stabilized and spin axis is pointed normal towards the sun. The satellite was integrated and tested at MICSAT, the MIT Chromepet clean room.

As of January 9, 2012, ANUSAT completed 15287 orbits around the earth thereby exceeding its intended mission life of two years

Part 2 A Home in the Sky


  1. Why is the arrival of new faces a cause of celebration in ISS?

The space station has a permanent crew of six, so the arrival of new faces is a cause for celebration. That said, even the most welcome visitors can cause havoc if they are inexperienced.

2. What was the experience of a shuttle pilot?

The shuttle pilot confessed to leaving a wake of laptops and other vital belongings behind him the first time he tried to fly from one room to another. “When you first turn up, you are like a bull in a china shop,” he said. “I had no idea where to put any of it back.” In time, people hone the skill and can fly down the length of the station, straight as an arrow, without touching anything, except with their fingertips. People sit in mid-air, tapping away at a computer, with only a toe hooked under a wall strap to anchor themselves. Then, with a flick of the hand, they’ll float up to another computer and carry on typing there. Getting from one place to another is all the more difficult because up and down (and so left and right) have no absolute meaning.

3. What happens when one tries to sleep?

Unsurprisingly, falling asleep can take some getting used to. Just as you are nodding off, you can feel as though you’ve fallen off a 10—storey building. People who look half asleep will suddenly throw their heads back with a start and fling out their arms. It gets easier with time. One Russian crew member is renowned for doing without a sleeping bag and falling asleep wherever he ends the day. Anyone still awake after bedtime would see his snoozing form drift by, slowly bouncing off the walls, his course set by the air currents that gently pushed and pulled him.

4. How long does day light last? What effect does this have on the astronauts?

Daylight last 45 minutes. The effect is that a dark line appears on the planet, dividing Earth into night and day. For a couple of seconds, the space station is bathed in a coppery light and then complete darkness. Another 45 minutes later, and just as abruptly, the sun rises to fill the station with brilliant light again. The onslaught of apparent days and nights would play havoc with astronauts’ body clocks, so shutters—down and bedtime schedule is imposed by mission controllers.


Physical AdjustmentsBiological Adjustments
Weightlessness ( Microgravity)Space Radiation
VisionIsolation and Confinement
BalanceDistance from Earth
OrientationGravity fields
Motion sicknessHostile/Closed environments

Verbal Ability

  • Careless
  • Endless
  • thoughtless
  • friendless
  • homeless
  • nameless
  • helpless
  • priceless

Predicting and Problem Solving

  • a. False
  • b. False
  • c. False
  • d. True
  • e. True

Fill in the blanks using suitable adverbs

  • Quietly
  • Beautifully
  • Carelessly
  • Excitedly
  • Well
  • Easily
  • Unfortunately
  • Suddenly
  • move gracefully
  • act swiftly
  • eat carefully
  • progress rapidly
  • Sing clearly
  • Fight cruelly
  • Write neatly
  • Study silently
  • speak fluently

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